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Chafik, L. and T. Rossby, 2019: Volume, Heat, and Freshwater Divergences in the Subpolar North Atlantic Suggest the Nordic Seas as Key to the State of the Meridional Overturning Circulation. Geophysical Research Letters, 46, 4799-4808,

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Cobb, A. and A. Czaja, 2019: Mesoscale Signature of the North Atlantic Oscillation and Its Interaction With the Ocean. Geophysical Research Letters, 46, 5575-5581,

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Huang, C. and Y. Xu, 2019: Spatial and seasonal variability of global ocean diapycnal transport inferred from Argo profiles. Journal of Oceanology and Limnology, 37, 498-512,

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Kolodziejczyk, N., W. Llovel, and E. Portela, 2019: Interannual Variability of Upper Ocean Water Masses as Inferred From Argo Array. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 124, 6067-6085,

Langehaug, H. R., A. B. Sandø, M. Årthun, and M. Ilıcak, 2019: Variability along the Atlantic water pathway in the forced Norwegian Earth System Model. Climate Dynamics, 52, 1211-1230,

Levin, L. A., B. J. Bett, A. R. Gates, P. Heimbach, B. M. Howe, F. Janssen, A. McCurdy, H. A. Ruhl, P. Snelgrove, K. I. Stocks, D. Bailey, S. Baumann-Pickering, C. Beaverson, M. C. Benfield, D. J. Booth, M. Carreiro-Silva, A. Colaço, M. C. Eblé, A. M. Fowler, K. M. Gjerde, D. O. B. Jones, K. Katsumata, D. Kelley, N. Le Bris, A. P. Leonardi, F. Lejzerowicz, P. I. Macreadie, D. McLean, F. Meitz, T. Morato, A. Netburn, J. Pawlowski, C. R. Smith, S. Sun, H. Uchida, M. F. Vardaro, R. Venkatesan, and R. A. Weller, 2019: Global Observing Needs in the Deep Ocean. Frontiers in Marine Science, 6,

Liang, X., M. Losch, L. Nerger, L. Mu, Q. Yang, and C. Liu, 2019: Using Sea Surface Temperature Observations to Constrain Upper Ocean Properties in an Arctic Sea Ice-Ocean Data Assimilation System. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 124, 4727-4743,

Liu, C., X. Liang, R. M. Ponte, N. Vinogradova, and O. Wang, 2019: Vertical redistribution of salt and layered changes in global ocean salinity. Nature Communications, 10, 3445,

Lu, W., H. Su, X. Yang, and X.-H. Yan, 2019: Subsurface temperature estimation from remote sensing data using a clustering-neural network method. Remote Sensing of Environment, 229, 213-222,

Lundrigan, S. and E. Demirov, 2019: Mean and Eddy-Driven Heat Advection in the Ocean Region Adjacent to the Greenland-Scotland Ridge Derived From Satellite Altimetry. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 124, 2239-2260,

Manizza, M., D. Menemenlis, H. Zhang, and C. E. Miller, 2019: Modeling the Recent Changes in the Arctic Ocean CO2 Sink (2006–2013). Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 33, 420-438,

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Smith, G. C., R. Allard, M. Babin, L. Bertino, M. Chevallier, G. Corlett, J. Crout, F. Davidson, B. Delille, S. T. Gille, D. Hebert, P. Hyder, J. Intrieri, J. Lagunas, G. Larnicol, T. Kaminski, B. Kater, F. Kauker, C. Marec, M. Mazloff, E. J. Metzger, C. Mordy, A. O’Carroll, S. M. Olsen, M. Phelps, P. Posey, P. Prandi, E. Rehm, P. Reid, I. Rigor, S. Sandven, M. Shupe, S. Swart, O. M. Smedstad, A. Solomon, A. Storto, P. Thibaut, J. Toole, K. Wood, J. Xie, Q. Yang, and t. W. P. S. G. , 2019: Polar Ocean Observations: A Critical Gap in the Observing System and Its Effect on Environmental Predictions From Hours to a Season. Frontiers in Marine Science, 6,


Somavilla, R., 2019: Draining and Upwelling of Greenland Sea Deep Waters. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 124, 2842-2860,

Srokosz, M. and C. Banks, 2019: Salinity from space. Weather, 74, 3-8,


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Su, H., X. Yang, W. Lu, and X.-H. Yan, 2019: Estimating Subsurface Thermohaline Structure of the Global Ocean Using Surface Remote Sensing Observations. Remote Sensing, 11, 1598,


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